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Marsh, O. C. 1872.

Notice of a new reptile from the Cretaceous.

Amer. Journal of Science, Series 3. 4(23):406.

Copyright © 2002-2009 by Mike Everhart

Page created 01/15/2002; Last updated 02/14/2009

Wherein O. C. Marsh incorrectly describes the jaws of the toothed bird, Ichthyornis, as a those of a new reptile, Colonosaurus Mudgei.

See also: Marsh, O. C., 1872. Discovery of a remarkable fossil bird. Amer. Jour. Sci. 3(13)56-57.

406                           Scientific Intelligence.

3. Notice of a New Reptile from the Cretaceous; by O. C. MARSH. - An interesting addition to the reptilian fauna of the Cretaceous shale of Kansas is a very small Saurian, which differs widely from any hereto discovered. The only remains at present known are two lower jaws, nearly perfect, and with many of the teeth in good preservation. The jaws resemble in general form those of the Mosasauroid reptiles, but, aside from their very diminutive size, present several features which no species of that group has been observed to possess. The teeth are implanted in distinct sockets, and are directed obliquely backward. There were apparently twenty teeth in each jaw, all compressed, and with very acute summits. The rami were united in front only by cartilage. There is no distinct groove on their inner surface, as in all known Mosasauroids. The dentigerous portion of the jaw is 41 mm in length, its depth below the last tooth is 5 mm and below the first tooth in front 3 mm. The specimen clearly indicates a new genus which may be called Colonosaurus, and the species may be named Colonosaurus Mudgei for the discover Prof. B. F. Mudge, who found the remains in the upper Cretaceous shale of Western Kansas.

Yale College, Oct. 7th, 1872.

Suggested references on Cretaceous birds:

Bühler, P., L. D. Martin and L. M. Witmer., 1988. Cranial kinesis in the Late Cretaceous birds Hesperornis and Parahesperornis. Auk 105 p. 111-122.

Chinsamy, A., L. D. Martin and P. Dodson, 1998. Bone microstructure of the diving Hesperornis and the volant Ichthyornis from the Niobrara Chalk of western Kansas. Cret. Research 19:225-235.

Clarke, J. A. 2004. Morphology, phylogenetic taxonomy, and systematics of Ichthyornis and Apatornis (Avialae: Ornithurae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 286: 1-179.

Gingerich, P. D., 1973. Skull of Hesperornis and early evolution of birds. Nature 243: 70-73

Gregory, J. T., 1951. Convergent evolution: The jaws of Hesperornis and the mosasaurs, Evolution, 5:345-354.

Gregory, J. T., 1952. The jaws of the Cretaceous toothed birds Ichthyornis and Hesperornis. Condor 54(2):73-88, 9 figs., 1 table.

Lane, H. H., 1946, A survey of the fossil vertebrates of Kansas, Part IV, The Birds, Kansas Academy Science, Transactions  49(4):390-400.

Lucas, S. G., 1982. Ichthyornis in the Late Cretaceous Mancos Shale (Juana Lopez Member), Northwest New Mexico. Journal of Paleontology 56(2):545-547.

Marsh, O. C., 1870. [Cretaceous and Tertiary birds of the U.S.] Nature (London), 1:546.

Marsh, O. C., 1872. Discovery of a remarkable fossil bird. American Journal of Science, series 3, 3(13):56-57. (for January - Hesperornis)

Marsh, O. C., 1872. Preliminary description of Hesperornis regalis, with notices of four other new species of Cretaceous birds. American Journal of Science, series 3, 3(17):360-365.

Marsh, O. C., 1872. Notice of a new and remarkable fossil bird. American Journal of Science, series 3,  4(22):344.

Marsh, O. C., 1872. Notice of a new reptile from the Cretaceous. American Journal of Science, series 3, 4(23):406.

Marsh, O. C., 1873. Fossil birds from the Cretaceous of North America. American Journal of Science, series 3, 5(27):229-231.

Marsh, O. C., 1875. On the Odontornithes, or birds with teeth. American Journal of Science, series 3, 10(59):403-408, pl. 9-10.

Marsh, O. C., 1875. Odontornithes, or birds with teeth. American Naturalist. 9(12):625-631, pl. 2-3.

Marsh, O. C., 1880. Odontornithes: A monograph on the extinct toothed birds of North America. U.S. Geological Expl. 40th Parallel (King), vol. 7, xv + 201 p., 34 pl.  (Synopsis of American Cretaceous birds, appendix 191-199)

Marsh, O. C., 1883. Birds with Teeth. 3rd Annual Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 3: 43-88. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

Martin, J. E., 1982. The occurrence of Hesperornis in the late Cretaceous Niobrara Formation of South Dakota. Proceedings South Dakota Academy of Science

Martin, L. D. 1981. The skeleton of Baptornis advenus from the Cretaceous of Kansas, Smithsonian Contributions Paleobiology 27:36-66.

Martin, L. D., 1984. A new hesperornithid and the relationships of the Mesozoic birds. Kansas Academy Science, Transactions  87:141-150.

Martin, L. D., and J. D. Stewart, 1977. Teeth in Ichthyornis (Class: Aves). Science, 185(4284):1331-1332.

Martin, L. D. and J. D. Stewart, 1982. An ichthyornithiform bird from the Campanian of Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Science 324-327.

Martin, L. D. and J. D. Stewart, 1996. Implantation and replacement of bird teeth. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 89:295-300.

Martin, L. D. and J. Tate Jr., 1966. A bird with teeth. Museum Notes, University of Nebraska State Museum, 29:1-2.

Walker, M. V., 1967. Revival of interest in the toothed birds of Kansas. Kansas Academy of Science, Transactions 70(1):60-66.

Williston, S. W., 1898. Addenda to Part I.   The University Geological Survey of Kansas, 4:28-32.

Williston, S. W., 1898. Birds. The University Geological Survey of Kansas, Part II,  4:43-53, pls.5-8.